There is an 11-fold increase in the risk of infants dying from diarrhoea
when they are not exclusively breastfed in their first six months of life. Malnutrition, often caused by inadequate infant feeding practices, can
result in a five-to-ten-fold increase in a child's risk of death from
diarrhea. By promoting and supporting good infant feeding practices at all
times, including during and after illness, we are working together with
several organizations to prevent malnutrition and reduce diarrheal disease. With more resources and effective implementation of available health, water
and sanitation solutions, we can save millions of children right now. That
diarrhoea remains a leading cause of death among children around the world
exemplifies the urgency of reinvigorating efforts to improve child health
and human development. PATH and the US Coalition for Child Survival are partnering on a Call to
Action urging international donors and policymakers, the private sector, and
national leaders to invest more funding and political will in solutions to
mitigate deaths and illnesses from diarrhoeal disease. Support from the
health, water and sanitation, development, and environmental sectors
underscores that success will take a coordinated and cross-sectoral effort
across these disciplines.
Diarrheal disease: Solutions to Defeat a Global Killer
Let’s Talk About It
Diarrhea is the second
leading killer of children around the world
Dirty drinking water,
poor sanitation, and rotavirus infection can lead to diarrhea, which is the
second leading killer of children around the world. If we talk about
diarrhea, we can defeat it. Learn how you can help! Watch the video and
What is Diarrhoea?
Diarrhea is the passage of loose or watery stools occurring three or more times in a 24-hour period.
The three types of diarrhea are: acute diarrhea, persistent diarrhea, and
If an episode of diarrhea lasts less than 14 days, it is
acute diarrhea. Acute watery diarrhea causes dehydration and contributes to malnutrition. The death of
a child with acute diarrhea is usually due to dehydration.
If the diarrhea
lasts 14 days or more, it is persistent diarrhea. Up to 20% of
episodes of diarrhea become persistent. Persistent diarrhea often causes
nutritional problems, creating the risk of malnutrition and serious
non-intestinal infection. Dehydration also occurs.
Diarrhea with blood in the stool – with or without mucus – is called
Dysentery is very dangerous because of its ability to lead to anorexia, rapid
weight loss, and damage to the intestinal mucosa. Another danger is sepsis.
Though the global under-five mortality from acute diarrhea has decreased
4.5 million to 1.8 million annually, acute diarrhea continues to take a huge
toll on children's health in developing countries. (WHO 2006) Diarrhea
represents a significant burden on the health system, the household, and the
nutritional status of children. (Bateman and McGahey 2001)
Diarrhea is the
second leading killer of children under the age
of five, accounting for approximately 15% of under-five child deaths worldwide, or
almost two million deaths annually. (WHO 2003)
Although the means to prevent diarrhea through water supply, sanitation, and
hygiene have been well documented, each year roughly one and one half billion
episodes of acute diarrhea occur among children under the age of five.
Clinical Types of Diarrhoeal Diseases
It is most practical to base treatment of diarrhoea on the clinical
type of the illness, which can easily be determined when a child is first examined.
Laboratory studies are not needed. Four clinical types of diarrhoea can be recognized,
each reflecting the basic underlying pathology and altered physiology:
· acute watery diarrhoea (including cholera) which lasts
several hours or days: the main danger is dehydration; weight loss also occurs if feeding
is not continued;
· acute bloody diarrhoea (also called dysentery): the main dangers are intestinal damage, sepsis and malnutrition; other complications,
including dehydration, may also occur;
· persistent diarrhoea (which lasts 14 days or longer):
the main danger is malnutrition and serious non-intestinal infection; dehydration may also occur;
· diarrhoea with severe malnutrition (marasmus or kwashiorkor); the main dangers are: severe systemic infection, dehydration, heart failure and vitamin and mineral deficiency.
The management of each type of diarrhoea should prevent or treat the main danger(s) that each presents.
When a child has diarrhoea the body fluids and salts can be quickly lost
from the body. The child becomes dry (dehydrated) and this is very dangerous and may kill
Why is Diarrhoea Dangerous?
Diarrhoea causes rapid depletion of water and sodium - both of which are necessary for life. If the water and salts are not replaced fast, the
body starts to "dry up" or get dehydrated. If more than 10% of the body's fluid is lost death occurs.
Severe dehydration can cause death.
Despite many advances, diarrhoeal diseases and the
resulting dehydration are responsible for about 1.2 million child deaths every year. Of these, approximately
50% are due to watery diarrhoea and occur
- either because of lack of access to ORS and/or health facilities,
- or because of incorrect case management (home or health facility).
The remainder are accounted for by persistent diarrhoea (approximately 35%) and dysentery (approximately 15%).
Diarrhoea is caused by bacteria or viruses. Children who are malnourished suffer much more; in turn, diarrhoea weakens children and
makes them more malnourished. Diarrhoea is also a major cause of child malnutrition.
How can Diarrhoea be
Diarrhoea can be prevented by pursuing multisectoral efforts by:
improving access to clean water and safe sanitation
promoting hygiene education
improved weaning practices
immunizing all children; especially against measles
keeping food and water clean
washing hands with soap (the baby's as well) before touching food
and by sanitary disposal of stools.
The above is most important message that can help parents governments and communities to prevent almost all of these deaths and most of the
malnutrition caused by diarrhoea.
The key factors are unclean water,
dirty hands at mealtime and spoilt food.
65% of all Child
Deaths are from 3 Causes:
Acute Respiratory tract Infections now kills
1.2 million children each year.
Diarrhoeal diseases are responsible for about
1.2 million child deaths every year.
Immunisation preventable diseases: measles,
tuberculosis, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, and pertussis are
responsible for some 2.1 million child deaths every year. Of these, almost 1 million are attributed to measles.
The common thread that links these infectious diseases is
the nutrition of the mother and child. Malnutrition predisposes children to disease, and
diseases often result in worse nutritional status, and consequently a vicious cycle of
cause and effect is established.
The main causes of diarrhoea are poor personal and food hygiene and lack of clean
drinking water. It is the responsibility of government to support the community in tackling these basic problems.
WHO: Water Related Diseases Diarrhoea occurs world-wide and causes 4% of all deaths and 5% of
health loss to disability. It is most commonly caused by
gastrointestinal infections which kill around 2.2 million people
globally each year, mostly children in developing countries. The use
of water in hygiene is an important preventive measure but
contaminated water is also an important cause of diarrhoea. Cholera
and dysentery cause severe, sometimes life threatening forms of
The disease and how it affects people
Diarrhoea is the passage of loose or liquid stools more
frequently than is normal for the individual. It is primarily a
symptom of gastrointestinal infection. Depending on the type of
infection, the diarrhoea may be watery (for example in cholera) or
passed with blood (in dysentery for example).
Diarrhoea due to infection may last a few days, or several weeks,
as in persistent diarrhoea. Severe diarrhoea may be life threatening
due to fluid loss in watery diarrhoea, particularly in infants and
young children, the malnourished and people with impaired
The impact of repeated or persistent diarrhoea on nutrition and
the effect of malnutrition on susceptibility to infectious diarrhoea
can be linked in a vicious cycle amongst children, especially in
Diarrhoea is also associated with other infections such as
malaria and measles. Chemical irritation of the gut or
non-infectious bowel disease can also result in diarrhoea.
Diarrhoea is a symptom of infection caused by a host of
bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms most of which can be spread
by contaminated water. It is more common when there is a shortage of
clean water for drinking, cooking and cleaning and basic hygiene is
important in prevention.
Water contaminated with human faeces for example from municipal
sewage, septic tanks and latrines is of special concern. Animal
faeces also contain microorganisms that can cause diarrhoea.
Diarrhoea can also spread from person to person, aggravated by
poor personal hygiene. Food is another major cause of diarrhoea when
it is prepared or stored in unhygienic conditions. Water can
contaminate food during irrigation, and fish and seafood from
polluted water may also contribute to the disease.
The infectious agents that cause diarrhoea are present or are
sporadically introduced throughout the world. Diarrhoea is a rare
occurrence for most people who live in developed countries where
sanitation is widely available, access to safe water is high and
personal and domestic hygiene is relatively good. World-wide around
1.1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.4
billion have no basic sanitation. Diarrhoea due to infection is
widespread throughout the developing world. In Southeast Asia and
Africa, diarrhoea is responsible for as much as 8.5% and 7.7% of all
Scope of the Problem
Amongst the poor and especially in developing countries,
diarrhoea is a major killer. In 1998, diarrhoea was estimated to
have killed 2.2 million people, most of whom were under 5 years of
age (WHO, 2000). Each year there are approximately 4 billion cases
of diarrhoea worldwide.
Key measures to reduce the number of cases of diarrhoea
Access to safe drinking water.
Good personal and food hygiene.
Health education about how infections spread.
Key measures to treat diarrhoea include:
Giving more fluids than usual, including oral rehydration
salts solution, to prevent dehydration.
Consulting a health worker if there are signs of dehydration
or other problems.
Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea
prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated.
Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy
bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one
step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015.more >>
Despite the severe impact of diarrhoea on children's health and mortality in India, recent surveys show that only half of all children suffering from
diarrhoea receive treatment or medical advice, and more than two-thirds receive no Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT). An understanding of the
socio-demographic determinants for appropriate treatment of the disease will be critical for improving these figures. This analysis is based on the most
recent National Family Health Survey (NFHS3), which shows that children are more likely to receive ORT if they are treated in a public health facility,
rather than in a private health facility. Households with mothers belonging to the youngest age group, lowest educational attainment, and poorest wealth
index are the least likely groups to properly treat their children suffering from diarrhoea. A significant gender bias also exists as parents show a
preferential treatment of male children and delay seeking treatment for their female children. The low usage of ORT can also be attributed to a
combination of low health knowledge among the aforementioned groups, and low use of public health facilities.
14 October, 2009 - New UNICEF/WHO Report Focuses Attention on Diarrheal Disease—the Second Leading Killer of Children Under 5—and Outlines 7-point Plan to Control This Preventable and Treatable Illness
The report highlights the proven diarrheal disease prevention and treatment solutions already available today. Many children in the developing world
cannot access urgent medical care for severe illnesses, making prevention methods—including improved hygiene, sanitation, safe drinking water,
exclusive breastfeeding, and vaccines preventing rotavirus—critical components of diarrheal disease control. When diarrhea occurs, it can be
effectively treated with simple solutions, including oral rehydration therapy/oral rehydration solution, zinc and other micronutrients, and continued feeding.
Despite substantial gains with effective interventions in the 1980s and 1990s, severe dehydration due to diarrhea continues to threaten too many
children’s lives, particularly in the developing world. Simple, available, and proven tools promise dramatic reductions in diarrhea-related illness and
deaths worldwide. In addition to established interventions that include oral rehydration therapy, exclusive breastfeeding, and improved hygiene, new
tools like zinc and vaccines bring new opportunities to re-invigorate interest and catalyze investments in diarrheal disease control.
Diarrheal Disease Messaging This
message map from the
DefeatDD.org website provides talking points to
help advocates and educators communicate the problem of diarrhoeal disease -
and suggested solutions - to civic and government leaders, policymakers,
donors, and other stakeholders. The website suggest customising the messages
for the audience and context of a presentation - using them in
presentations, meetings, policy briefs, or stories on child health, as well
as adding them to everyday conversation to help others understand working
together to overcome diarrhoeal disease.
From the document: "PATH developed these messages for use by anyone
interested in communicating the impact of diarrhea on the health and
development of children and families around the world. Perhaps more
importantly, it is also a guide to communicating the value of a coordinated
approach to diarrheal disease control and the proven, cost effective
solutions available today to save lives."
A list of messages follows on the following topics: Burden, Child Survival,
Solutions, Results, Resource Allocation
A Common Disease, A Promising Solution No child should die of diarrhea, and with rotavirus vaccines they don't have to
A new report from PATH highlights the broad array of lifesaving prevention and treatment solutions for addressing diarrheal disease
in the developing world. Diarrheal Disease: Solutions to Defeat a Global Killer presents scientific evidence to support
strategies to scale up use of interventions including safe water, improved sanitation and hygiene, breastfeeding and optimal
complementary feeding, rotavirus vaccines, zinc treatment, and oral rehydration therapy (ORT)/oral rehydration solution (ORS).
Additionally, the report features
case studies from several organizations making a real impact with on-the-ground programs that bring these tools to the
communities that need them most.
In tandem with the new report, a
Call to Action is bringing together
partners from the health, water and sanitation, and environmental sectors to raise awareness and
catalyze momentum on programs that address diarrheal disease control. Over 50 organizations have already joined the call. PATH
and the US Coalition for Child Survival invite all interested organizations to
Follow the trail of rotavirus vaccines as they prevent diarrheal disease in Nicaragua and demonstrate their potential for saving young lives in Africa and Asia. PATH has helped Nicaragua make dramatic progress to stop an unnecessary killer. Now it's time to bring these vaccines to the rest of the developing world.
Causes of Child Deaths - March 26, 2005
Worldwide 73% of the 10.6 million yearly deaths in children younger than age 5 years: pneumonia (19%),
diarrhoea (18%), malaria (8%), neonatal
pneumonia or sepsis (10%), preterm delivery (10%), and asphyxia at birth (8%).
Of the 6.6 million deaths among children aged 28 days to five years: 1.7 million (26%) are caused by diarrhoea. 1 million (61%) of these deaths
are due to the presence of undernutrition. Millions more survive only to face diminished futures, unable to develop to their full potential.
During diarrhoea, the body loses water and electrolytes in the form of
liquid stool. Fluids can also be lost through vomit, sweat, urine and
breathing. Dehydration occurs when these losses are not adequately replaced.
Diarrhoea may result in a decrease in food intake or nutrient absorption and
an increase in nutrient requirements which often combine to cause weight
loss and retarded growth. When a child's nutritional status declines, any
pre-existing malnutrition becomes worse. In turn, a child with malnutrition
can experience diarrhoea that is more severe, more prolonged and more
frequent than a non-malnourished child..
Diarrhoea may present in different forms such as acute watery diarrhoea,
dysentery (blood in stool), or persistent diarrhoea (more than 14 days).
Antibiotics should not be used routinely. They are reliably helpful only for
children with blood in the diarrhoea (probable shigellosis) and other
serious non-intestinal infections such as pneumonia. Anti-diarrhoeal drugs
and anti-emetics should not be given to young children with either acute or
persistent diarrhoea since they do not prevent dehydration or improve
nutritional status, and some have dangerous side-effect.
dehydration. Children are more likely than adults to die from
diarrhoea because they become dehydrated more quickly. Diarrhoea is also a major cause of child malnutrition.
The main causes of diarrhoea are poor hygiene, lack of clean drinking water, overcrowding, and the trend towards bottle-feeding rather than
breastfeeding. Infants who are fed only breastmilk seldom get diarrhoea.
Diarrhoea can be prevented by
breastfeeding, by immunizing all children
against measles, by using latrines, by keeping food and water clean, and by washing hands before touching food.
Thousands of deaths could be averted through interventions such as Oral Rehydration Therapy, appropriate drug therapy,
optimal breastfeeding practices, improved nutrition, increased access to clean water and sanitation facilities and improved personal and domestic
hygiene. If families and communities work together, with support from governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), they can do much to prevent the
conditions that cause diarrhoea.
Two recent advances in managing diarrhoeal disease – newly formulated oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower
concentrations of glucose and salt, and success in using zinc supplementation – can drastically reduce the number of child deaths.
Diarrhoeal Disease: The health hazards from poor water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour
A recent report* notes that around 4 billion cases of diarrhoea are recorded each year, leading to 2.2 million deaths, mostly among children under the age of five (15% of all child deaths). Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions reduce diarrhoeal disease on average by between one-quarter and one-third.
Approximately 4 billion cases of diarrhoea each
year (2) cause 2.2 million deaths, mostly among
children under the age of five (3). This is equivalent
to one child dying every 15 seconds, or 20 jumbo jets
crashing every day. These deaths represent approximately
15% of all child deaths under the age of five
in developing countries. Water, sanitation, and
hygiene interventions reduce diarrhoeal disease on
average by between one-quarter and one-third (4).
Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the population
of the developing world (2). These can be controlled
through better sanitation, hygiene and water supply
(5). Intestinal parasitic infections can lead to
malnutrition, anaemia and retarded growth,
depending upon the severity of the infection.
It is estimated that 6 million people are blind from
trachoma and the population at risk from this
disease is approximately 500 million. Considering the
more rigorous epidemiological studies linking water
to trachoma, Esrey et al. (4) found that providing
adequate quantities of water reduced the median
infection rate by 25%.
200 million people in the world are infected with
schistosomiasis, of whom 20 million suffer severe
consequences. The disease is still found in 74
countries of the world. Esrey et al. (4), in reviewing
epidemiological studies, found a median 77%
reduction from well-designed water and sanitation
Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health
threat. According to data from about 25 000 tests on
wells in Bangladesh, 20% have high levels of arsenic
(above 0.05 mg/l). These wells were not, however,
selected at random and may not reflect the true
percentage (6). Many people are working hard in
Bangladesh, West Bengal and other affected areas
to understand the problem and identify the solution.
*Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment, 2000 Report. WHO and UNICEF.
WHO/UNICEF/WSSCC (2000) - ISBN 92 4 156202 1). Pg 2, Box. 1.2
Diarrhoea) Diarrhea in American English,
(spelt diarrhoea elsewhere) is a condition in which the
sufferer has frequent and watery bowel movements. This condition can be a symptom of injury,
and is usually accompanied by abdominal pain, and often nausea and
vomiting. There are other conditions which involve some but not all of the
symptoms of diarrhea, and so the formal medical definition of diarrhea
involves defecation of more than 200 grams per day (though formal weighing of
stools to determine a diagnosis is never actually carried out). It occurs when insufficient fluid is absorbed by the colon. As part of the
digestion process, or due to
fluid intake, food is mixed with large amounts
of water. Thus, digested food is essentially liquid prior to reaching the
colon. The colon absorbs water, leaving the remaining material as a semisolid
stool. If the colon is damaged or inflamed, however, absorption is inhibited,
and watery stools result. Diarrhea is most commonly caused by myriad viral
infections but is also often the result of
toxins and sometimes even infection. In sanitary living conditions and with
ample food and water available, an otherwise healthy patient typically
recovers from the common viral infections in a few days and at most a week.
However, for ill or malnourished individuals diarrhea can lead to severe
dehydration and can become life-threatening without treatment. It can also be a symptom of more serious diseases, such as
and can also be indicative of a chronic syndrome such as
Crohn's disease. It is also an effect of severe
radiation sickness. It can also be caused by excessive alcohol consumption, especially in someone
who doesn't eat enough food. Symptomatic treatment for diarrhea involves the patient consuming adequate
amounts of water to replace that lost, preferably mixed with
electrolytes to provide essential
salts and some
nutrients. For many people, further treatment and formal medical advice is
unnecessary. The following types of diarrhea generally indicate medical
supervision is desirable:
Diarrhea in homosexual males (tends to be more severe and may be
Diarrhea in travelers (more likely to have exotic infections such as
Diarrhea in food handlers (potential to infect others)
Diarrhea in institutions (Hospitals, child care, mental health
institutes, geriatric and convalescent homes etc).
Since most people will ignore very minor diarrhea, a patient who actually
presents to a doctor is likely to have diarrhea that is more severe than
usual. Acute diarrhea
This may defined as diarrhea that lasts less than 2 weeks, and is also
called gastroenteritis. This can nearly always be presumed to be infective although this is proven in
a minority of cases. It is often reasonable to reassure a patient, ensure adequate fluid intake and
wait and see. In more severe cases or where it is important to find the cause
of the illness stool cultures are instituted. The most common organisms found are
Campylobacter (an organism of animal or chicken origin),
salmonella (also often of animal origin),
Cryptosporidiosis (animal origin),
Giardia Lamblia (lives in drinking water).
(dysentery) is less common and usually human in origin. Cholera is rare in
Western countries. It is more common in travelers and is usually related to
contaminated water (its ultimate source is probably sea water).
E Coli is
probably a very common cause of diarrhea, especially in travelers, but it can
be difficult to detect using current technology. The types of E. coli vary
from area to area and country to country. Viruses,
particularly rotavirus is common in children. (Viral diarrhea is
probably over-diagnosed by non-doctors). The
Norwalk virus is rare. Toxins and food poisoning can cause diarrhea. These include staphylococcal
toxin (see Staphylococcus)(often milk products due to an
infected wound in workers), and Bacillus cereus (eg rice in Chinese
takeaways). Often "food poisoning" is really salmonella infection. Diarrhea is a common side effect of drugs (especially
antibiotics). Clostridium difficile infection is potentially
serious and is often related to antibiotic use. Parasites and worms sometime cause diarrhea but often present with weight
rashes or anal itching. The commonest is pinworm (mostly of nuisance value
rather than a severe medical illness). Other worms such as hook worm, ascaris
and tapeworm are more medically significant and may cause weight loss, anemia,
general unwellness and allergic problems.
Amoebic dysentery due to
Entaeomeba histolytica is an
important cause of bloody diarrhea in travelers and also sometimes in western
countries which requires appropriate and complete medical treatment. Chronic diarrhea
Infective diarrhea It is not uncommon for diarrhea to persist. Diarrhea due to some organisms may
persist for years without significant long term illness. More commonly a
diarrhea will slowly ameliorate but the patient becomes a carrier (harbors the
infection without illness). This is often an indication for treatment,
especially in food workers or institution workers. Parasites (worms and amoeba) should always be treated. Salmonella is the most
common persistent bacterial organism in humans.
Non infective diarrhea These tend to be more severe medical illnesses.
Malabsorption: This is due to the inability to absorb food, mostly in the
small bowel but also due to the pancreas. Causes include celiac disease (intolerance to
wheat product), lactose intolerance (Intolerance to milk
sugar, common in non-Europeans),
fructose malabsorption, Pernicious
(impaired bowel function due to the inability to absorb
B12), loss of pancreatic secretions (may be due to cystic fibrosis or
pancreatitis), short bowel syndrome (surgically removed bowel), radiation
fibrosis (usually following cancer treatment), other drugs such as
chemotherapy, and of course, diarrhea-predominant
irritable bowel syndrome.
Chronic inflammatory diseases There are of unknown origin but a likely to be abnormal immune responses to
infection. There is some overlap but the two types are
ulcerative colitis and
Bowel cancer: Some (but NOT all) bowel cancers may
have associated diarrhea. (Cancer of the or large colon is most common)
Hormone-secreting tumours: Some hormones can cause diarrhea if excreted
to excess (usually from a tumour).
Treatment of diarrhea
Do nothing except ensure adequate fluids. This is the most appropriate
treatment in most cases of minor diarrhea.
Try eating more but smaller portions. Eat regularly. Don't eat or drink
Anti-diarrhea drugs: Use cautiously as they are said to prolong the
illness and may increase the risk of a carrier state. They are useful in
some cases, however, when it is important that you don't have diarrhea (e.g.
when travelling on a bus).
Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be required if they can be effective and
the patient is medically ill. They are sometimes also indicated for workers
with carrier states in order to clear up an infection so that the person can
resume work. Parasites require appropriate antibiotics.
Dietary manipulation: especially avoid wheat products with
and sometime isolation: Hygiene is important in limiting spread of the
It is claimed that some fruit, such as
may have positive effects on this condition. Bananas have the merits of
being easily obtainable, and they are unlikely to have any other significant
unwanted side effects.
This briefing paper provides an overview of the tools and
interventions involved with an integrated approach to diarrheal disease
control, including vaccines, oral rehydration, breastfeeding, and zinc
treatment. The document also advocates for renewed commitment at global,
regional, and national levels.
This fact sheet aims to raise awareness about breastfeeding to
prevent and treat diarrhea. One in a set of introductory resources, it
provides stakeholders and policymakers in the world’s poorest countries
with crucial information on a proven intervention in the fight against
This fact sheet highlights PATH's work to develop safe, effective,
and affordable vaccines against Shigella and enterotoxigenic
Escherichia colii, two of the leading bacterial causes of
This fact sheet aims to raise awareness about oral rehydration
therapy to rehydrate people—particularly infants and children—who have
lost fluids because of diarrhea. One in a set of introductory resources,
it provides stakeholders and policymakers in the world’s poorest
countries with crucial information on a proven intervention in the fight
against diarrheal disease.
This fact sheet aims to raise awareness about two new vaccines
against rotavirus, a major cause of diarrheal disease. One in a set
of introductory resources, it provides stakeholders and policymakers in
the world’s poorest countries with crucial information on new tools to
fight diarrheal disease.
This fact sheet aims to raise awareness about zinc, a new treatment
for diarrhea. One in a set of introductory resources, it provides
stakeholders and policymakers in the world’s poorest countries with
crucial information on a new tool to fight diarrheal disease.
Although diarrheal disease is the second-leading
cause of child death worldwide, momentum to control
it in low-income countries has slowed—even
stalled—over the last decade. A crowded health
landscape, limited funding, and insufficient
awareness of the evidence on interventions have
conspired to keep diarrheal disease low on the list
of both global and country-level health priorities.
Today, though, the opportunity to tackle this
challenge is greater than ever. New tools and
cornerstone solutions are helping to inspire action
by health policymakers around the world. Now is the
time for advocates, scientists, academics,
practitioners, health and development officials, and
donors to join their voices. Together, we can
rebuild momentum and overcome the devastating toll
that diarrhea takes on children, families, and
communities around the world.
We are pleased to provide the tools below to help
you spread the word about global diarrheal disease
burden and the solutions to address it. Please
contact us to suggest additional resources.
A Global Review of Diarrhoeal Disease Control
UNICEF Staff Working Papers, Evaluation, Policy and Planning Series, Number
Scott Enzley, Fernando Barros - ISBN: [92-806-3279-5] ISSN: 1013-3178 February
Child Survival: From Knowledge to action - Session 2: Diarrhoeal Diseases
Venice, 26 to 28 January 2003 - Dr Hans Troedsson, Director, Department of
Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH)
Where are we now? WHO’s Perspective - Dr Olivier Fontaine, World Health
Recent developments in the clinical management of acute diarrhoea -
Guidelines and Training
Diarrheal Disease Course - Global Health eLearning Center - USAID
Time: Approximately 1 hour, 30 minutes
Objectives: By the end of this course you will be able to:
Describe the magnitude of diarrheal diseases among children
under the age of five in developing countries
Explain the main principles of diarrhea case management in
Discuss what can be done to prevent diarrhea in young
children in developing countries and obstacles that must be overcome to do
Guidelines for the Management of Acute Diarrhea
September 27, 2005 Page 1 of 4 INFORMATION FOR HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS Guidelines
for the Management of Acute Diarrhea Increased incidence of acute diarrhea may
occur in post-disaster situations where access to electricity, clean water
Diarrhea, disease information, NCID, CDC
Infectious Disease Information Contents Infectious Diseases Information Index
Useful Sites Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli infection (non-Shiga toxin-producing
E. coli infection) Technical and additional information Frequently Asked
NIP: Diseases/Rota/Rotavirus diarrhea FAQs
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis (diarrhea) in
infants and young children in the United States (U.S.). Worldwide, rotavirus is
a major cause of childhood deaths.