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Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health News

Water Safety Plan Manual: Step-by-step risk management for drinking-water suppliers (now available in Polish and Russian)

This workbook supports water safety planning in organized water supplies managed by a water utility or similar entity. It describes how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms through eleven learning modules.

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publication_9789241562638/en/

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publication_9789241562638/ru/index.html

Water Safety Planning for Small Community Water Supplies (now available in Russian)

Step-by-step risk management guidance for drinking-water supplies in small communities.

This manual is designed to engage, empower and guide communities to develop and implement WSPs through six achievable tasks.

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2012/water_supplies/ru/index.html

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, the chemical background document, Uranium in Drinking-water has been revised.

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/uranium/en/

Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

The Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the dissemination of high-quality information on the science, policy and practice of drinking-water supply, sanitation and hygiene at local, national and international levels, published by IWA Publishing.
Click on the links below to view abstracts of some of the papers included in the latest issue of the journal:

Open trickling filter: an innovative, cheap and simple form of post-treatment of sanitary effluents from anaerobic reactors in small communities. P.C. Vieira and M. von Sperling, 59–67 doi:10.2166/washdev.2012.072

http://www.iwaponline.com/washdev/002/washdev0020059.htm

Sludge removal from primary wastewater stabilization ponds with excessive accumulation: a sustainable method for developing regions. Stewart M. Oakley, Luciana Coêlho Mendonça and Sérgio Rolim Mendonça, 68–78 doi:10.2166/washdev.2012.093

http://www.iwaponline.com/washdev/002/washdev0020068.htm

Impact of climate and bulking materials on characteristics of compost from ecological toilets. James W. McKinley, Rebecca E. Parzen and Álvaro Mercado Guzmán, 79–86 doi:10.2166/washdev.2012.059

http://www.iwaponline.com/washdev/002/washdev0020079.htm

Optimizing the solar water disinfection (SODIS) method by decreasing turbidity with NaCl. Brittney Dawney and Joshua M. Pearce, 87-94 doi:10.2166/washdev. 2012.043

http://www.iwaponline.com/washdev/002/washdev0020087.htm

UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) WSH completed the analysis and assessment for UN-Water and the GLAAS 2012 report was launched by the Chair of UN-Water, Michel Jarraud, on 12 April 2012. The report can now be downloaded in its definitive version from here. It presents new data from 74 low- and middle-income countries and 24 external support agencies, illustrating the status of key efforts and trends relating to securing increased water, sanitation and hygiene provision. The report warns that sanitation and drinking-water service coverage could regress if adequate resources are not secured to sustain routine operation and maintenance, and also points to the needs for increased efforts to continue positive trends in resource targeting, to enhance countries' absorption capacity of aid funds and to accelerate human resource development

UNICEF: Call to action for WASH in schools



UNICEF: World Water Day: Promoting hygiene and water treatment in Guinea

21 March, 2010

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health News

Journal of Water and Health

© IWA Publishing 2009
WHO and IWA Publishing collaborate the Journal of Water and Health.
Click on the links below to view abstracts of some of the papers included in the latest issue of the journal

For subscription information on the journal: http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/subscriptions.htm
For a sample copy: http://www.iwaponline.com/sample.htm
To register for Contents Alert: http://www.iwapublishing.com/template.cfm?name=mailings


26 October, 2009

Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done
In October UNICEF and WHO released a report detailing a joint approach to reducing child mortality from diarrhoeal diseases. The report presents a seven-point strategy, including promotion of hand washing with soap; improved water supply quantity and quality, including household water treatment and safe storage; and community-wide sanitation promotion.
Report is available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2009/childhood_deaths_diarrhoea_20091014/en/index.html

Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage '09 (HWTS'09, Dublin, Ireland, 21-23 September 2009)
aimed to address barriers in introducing, scaling-up and achieving sustainable household water treatment and safe storage. The Conference programme was, in part, dedicated to the WHO-hosted HWTS Network. Presentations can be found at http://www.rcsi.ie/hwts09/Links to presentations.doc
For a list of major outcomes concerning the network please email Ameer Shaheed [email protected]

Rapid dead-end ultrafiltration concentration and biosensor detection of enterococci from beach waters of Southern California
Stephaney D. Leskinen, Valerie J. Harwood and Daniel V. Lim
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.086
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070674.htm

Molecular detection of enterotoxins in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei
L. C. Balsalobre, M. Dropa, G. R. Matté and M. H. Matté
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.082
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070685.htm

Where's the pump? Associating sporadic enteric disease with drinking water using a geographic information system, in British Columbia, Canada, 1996–2005
Sasha Uhlmann, Eleni Galanis, Tim Takaro, Sunny Mak, Larry Gustafson, Glen Embree, Neil Bellack, Kitty Corbett and Judy Isaac-Renton
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.108
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070692.htm

Mathematical models for Enterococcus faecalis recovery after microwave water disinfection
Earl Benjamin, Aron Reznik, Ellis Benjamin, Saroj K. Pramanik, Louise Sowers and Arthur L. Williams
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.132
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070699.htm

28 September, 2009

Hygienic effects and gas production of plastic bio-digesters under tropical conditions
Vo Thi Yen-Phi, Joachim Clemens, Andrea Rechenburg, Björn Vinneras, Christina Lenßen and Thomas Kistemann
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.127
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070590.htm

Decline in recycled water quality during short-term storage in open ponds
Jennifer Higgins, Jan Warnken, Peter R. Teasdale and J. Michael Arthur
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.134
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070597.htm

Data gaps in evidence-based research on small water enterprises in developing countries
Melissa C. Opryszko, Haiou Huang, Kurt Soderlund and Kellogg J. Schwab
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.213
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070609.htm

Hand–mouth transfer and potential for exposure to E. coli and F+ coliphage in beach sand, Chicago, Illinois
Richard L. Whitman, Katarzyna Przybyla-Kelly, Dawn A. Shively, Meredith B. Nevers and Muruleedhara N. Byappanahalli
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.115
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070623.htm

The case for re-evaluating the upper limit value for selenium in drinking water in Europe
E. Barron, V. Migeot, S. Rabouan, M. Potin-Gautier, F. Séby, P. Hartemann, Y. Lévi and B. Legube
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.097
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070630.htm

11 September, 2009

Comparing probabilistic microbial risk assessments for drinking water against daily rather than annualised infection probability targets
R. S. Signor and N. J. Ashbolt
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.101
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070535.htm

Optimising water treatment practices for the removal of Anabaena circinalis and its associated metabolites, geosmin and saxitoxins
Lionel Ho, Paul Tanis-Plant, Nawal Kayal, Najwa Slyman and Gayle Newcombe
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.075
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070544.htm

Quantifying the burden of disease associated with inadequate provision of water and sanitation in selected sub-Saharan refugee camps
Aidan A. Cronin, Dinesh Shrestha, Paul Spiegel, Fiona Gore and Heiko Hering
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.089
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070557.htm

Is there still a problem with lead in drinking water in the European Union?
C. R. Hayes and N. D. Skubala
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.110
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070569.htm

Enteric illness risks before and after water treatment improvements
Floyd J. Frost, Kristine Tollestrup, Melissa Roberts, Twila R. Kunde, Gunther F. Craun and Lucy Harter
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.116
http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/007/jwh0070581.htm

17 July, 2009

WHO at the Singapore Intern'nal Water Week (SIWW) 2009
The 2nd Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) was held 22-26 June 2009 in Singapore. Key WHO engagements included a WHO Working Group Meeting on Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Drinking Water, the 2nd Meeting of the International Network of Drinking-water Regulators (RegNet), and a Planning meeting for the Global Water Safety Plan Conference 2010 with International Water Association and Malaysian Water Association, 22 June 09. Bruce Gordon presented "WHO Aspirations for Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality" and was a panelist for the session on Water and Health. More information on the SIWW 2009 can be found at:
http://www.siww.com.sg/

CLIMATE CHANGE, WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
How will climate change affect drinking-water supply and sanitation? Will more floods and droughts jeopardize efforts to achieve the MDG targets? What are the implications for technology development to include improved resilience to climate change impacts? And: what actions are needed now to ensure future policies, institutional capacities and technical capabilities can meet demands on water supply and sanitation resulting from climate change?

All these questions are addressed in a new summary report (Vision 2030) that will be launched at a WHO/DFID side event at World Water Week on Friday 21 August at 12:30.
For more information on this year's Stockholm World Water Week Programme and the WHO co-convened events go to www.worldwaterweek.org

26 May, 2009

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, third edition, incorporating first and second addenda

The Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, third edition is now available as one integrated volume incorporating revisions reflected in the First and Second addenda.
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/en/index.html

Draft Bromide fact sheet available for comment
In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, a fact sheet has been prepared for bromide. Comments on the fact sheet should be sent to [email protected] Closing date for receiving comments - 15 July 2009.
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/bromide/en/index.html

Draft Chemical Background document on Potassium to the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality available for comments
In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Potassium in Drinking-water, a chemical background document has been prepared. Comments on the fact sheet should be sent to [email protected] Closing date for receiving comments - 15 July 2009.
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/gdwqrevision/potassium/en/index.html

30 April, 2009

Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water: Beneficial Impacts on Health
Can calcium and magnesium (‘hardness’) in drinking water contribute to preventing disease? This book documents the outputs of an expert group assembled by the World Health Organization to address this question. It includes their comprehensive consensus view on what is known and what is not about the role and possible health benefit of calcium and magnesium in drinking-water
click on link for more information

Mercury
Mercury, one of the world's most ubiquitous heavy metal neurotoxicants, has been an integral part of many medical devices, most prominently thermometers and sphygmomanometers. These devices break or leak with regularity, adding to the global burden of mercury in the environment and exposing health care workers and patients to the acute effects of the metal itself. The health care sector around the world is moving to replace mercury-based medical devices with affordable, accurate and safer alternatives.

The World Health Organization in collaboration with Health Care Without Harm is co-leading a global initiative to achieve virtual elimination of mercury-based thermometers and sphygmomanometers over the next decade and their substitution with accurate, economically viable alternatives. The initiative is a component of the UN Environment Programme’s Mercury Products Partnership.
For information on this Initiative visit: mercuryfreehealthcare

Water Safety Plan Manual: Step-by-step risk management for drinking-water suppliers (now available in Spanish)
This much-anticipated workbook describes how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms through eleven learning modules.

Click on link for The Spanish version

Draft Chemical Background document on Nitrobenzene to the Guidelines for Drinking-water quality available for comments

In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, "Nitrobenzene in Drinking-water", a chemical background document has been prepared. Comments on the background document should be sent to [email protected] Closing date for receiving comments 15 July 2009.

Chemical hazards in drinking-water - nitrobenzene

Draft Chemical Background on Temephos to the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality available for comments

In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Temephos in Drinking-water, a chemical background document has been prepared. Comments on the background document should be sent to [email protected] Closing date for receiving comments - 15 July 2009

Chemical hazards in drinking-water - temephos

Draft Chemical Background on Beryllium to the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality available for comments

In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Beryllium in Drinking-water, a chemical background document has been prepared. Comments on the background document should be sent to [email protected] Closing date for receiving comments - 30 July 2009

Chemical hazards in drinking-water - Beryllium

Event
The Water and Sanitation Company of the State of São Paulo (SABESP, Brazil), through its Development and Technology Innovation Department, will hold the International Seminar on Water Reuse from May 13 to 15, 2009 in the city of São Paulo-SP, Brazil. Their web site can be reached at www.sabesp.com.br

The second regional Asia Pacific Conference on health impact assessment was held in Chiang Mai Thailand 22-24 April 2009, with special reference to HIA of water resources development as part of the programme. The Conference outcome, including the Chiang Mai Declaration will shortly be published on www.hia2008chiangmai.com

GIS-based analysis of the fate of waste-related pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia and Escherichia coli in a tropical canal network
Mamadou B. C. Diallo, Alfredo J. Anceno, Benjawan Tawatsupa, Nitin K. Tripathi, Voranuch Wangsuphachart and Oleg V. Shipin
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.010
iwaponline info

Is fecal contamination of drinking water after collection associated with household water handling and hygiene practices? A study of urban slum households in Hyderabad, India
Jayasheel Eshcol, Prasanta Mahapatra and Sarita Keshapagu
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.094
iwaponline info

Measuring the effectiveness of performance-based training
William Bowman, Michael Messner, Stig Regli and Jon Bender
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.004
iwaponline info

A study of ecological sanitation as an integrated urban water supply system: case study of sustainable strategy for Kuching City, Sarawak, Malaysia
Darrien Mah Yau Seng, Frederik Josep Putuhena, Salim Said and Law Puong Ling
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.103
iwaponline info

13 March, 2009

There was a technical problem to the link "Water Safety Plan Manual: Step-by-step risk management for drinking-water suppliers" We do sincerely apologize.

Please find below an updated version.

Thank you for your patience.

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health Newsletter N° 101 / 10 March 2009 - corrected link to WSP Manual

Water Safety Plan Manual: Step-by-step risk management for water suppliers
In 2004, the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality recommended that water suppliers develop and implement "Water Safety Plans" (WSPs) in order to systematically assess and manage risks. Since this time, governments and regulators, water suppliers and practitioners have increasingly embraced this approach, but they have also requested further guidance. This much-anticipated workbook answers this call by describing how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms. Stepwise advice is provided through 11 learning modules, each representing a key step in the WSP development and implementation process.

Application of Helminth ova infection dose curve to estimate the risks associated with biosolid application on soil
I. Navarro, B. Jiménez, S. Lucario and E. Cifuentes
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.113
iwaponline info

Addressing disease surveillance needs for marine recreational bathers
David Turbow
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.077
iwaponline info

A water contamination incident in Oslo, Norway during October 2007; a basis for discussion of boil-water notices and the potential for post-treatment contamination of drinking water supplies
Lucy Robertson, Bjørn Gjerde, Elisabeth Furuseth Hansen and Teresa Stachurska-Hagen
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.014
iwaponline info

10 March, 2009

101st Edition of Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health Newsletter
This is the 101st edition of the WHO Water and Sanitation Hygiene and Health Newsletter. Since its start, it has maintained a more-or-less consistent style, focusing on what WHO is working on, with brief "headlines" and links further information.

It now has around 5,000 self subscribed readers.
We see the newsletter as a simple but effective mechanism to distribute information.
Coordination of the newsletter is now with Ms Deborah Asante-Luisier who joined us in December. We would welcome any comments on the newsletter as we planned to its next 101st edition. They should be addressed to Deborah at="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]

According to the former WHO Director General Dr LEE Jong-Wook, " Water and Sanitation is one if the primary drivers of public health. "I often refer to it as Health 101", which means that once we can secure access to clean water and to adequate sanitation facilities for all people, irrespective of difference in their living conditions, a huge battle against all kinds of diseases will be won".

Promoting household water treatment and safe storage
Every year there are 1.6 million diarrhoeal deaths related to unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene—the vast majority among children under 5. More than one billion people lack access to an improved water source.

A recent international conference aimed to strengthen national initiatives to control waterborne diseases by expanding household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) programmes and developing multisectoral partnerships.

The government of the meeting’s host country, the United Republic of Tanzania, took a leadership role by developing its HWTS policy, including a framework for a National Action Plan to promote and scale up HWTS and building a link to cholera prevention. HWTS Network,

Water Safety Plan Manual: Step-by-step risk management for drinking-water suppliers

In 2004, the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality recommended that water suppliers develop and implement "Water Safety Plans" (WSPs) in order to systematically assess and manage risks. Since this time, governments and regulators, water suppliers and practitioners have increasingly embraced this approach, but they have also requested further guidance.

This much-anticipated workbook answers this call by describing how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms. Stepwise advice is provided through 11 learning modules, each representing a key step in the WSP development and implementation process.

Water Safety Plan Manual

Health Opportunities in Development

From 1 to 8 March WHO/WSH is organizing the first part of its training course "Health Opportunities in Development" for 28 participants from different public sectors in Sihanoukville, Cambodia. It aims to develop skills for intersectoral negotiation in support of health impact assessment. This face-to-face part will be followed by a trial e-learning part, and the course will be closed with face-to-face sessions in June. For more information contact Robert Bos,="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]

Event

The Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) is organizing an International Conference on Environment and Health from 16 to 19 March 2009, covering a range of water-related issues including water quality, global environmental issues, monitoring and environmental health impact assessment. WHO/PHE has been invited to present "The Global Environmental Burden of Disease" and "Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Development Projects". More information on International Conference on Environment and Health

Rainfall and outbreaks of drinking water related disease and in England and Wales
Gordon Nichols, Chris Lane, Nima Asgari, Neville Q. Verlander and Andre Charlett
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.143
Rainfall and outbreaks of drinking water related disease

A sea change ahead for recreational water quality criteria
Alexandria B. Boehm, Nicholas J. Ashbolt, John M. Colford, Lee E. Dunbar, Lora E. Fleming, Mark A. Gold, Joel A. Hansel, Paul R. Hunter, Audrey M. Ichida, Charles D. McGee, Jeffrey A. Soller and Stephen B. Weisberg
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.122
A sea change ahead for recreational water quality criteria

Household characteristics associated with home water treatment: an analysis of the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey
Jim Wright an
doi:10.2166/wh.2009.056
home water treatment

2 February, 2009

Water, sanitation and hygiene standards in schools in low-cost settings.
WSH is seeking assistance from those with suitable experience to review the draft - Water, sanitation and hygiene standards in schools in low-cost settings Draft- WASH Standards in Schools. A "Response Form" which details the type of review we are seeking can be found here Response Form . We should be grateful to receive responses from interested individuals/institutions by 28 February 2009. Your assistance is much appreciated.

Cholera in Southern Africa

Up Until 29 January 2009, nine countries reported cholera cases. Zimbabwe continues to remain the most critical situation with more than 60'000 reported cholera cases. Trans-border infections have been recorded and there are concerns that with the rainy season, the disease will spread even further. The epidemic also further spread in South Africa (6'202 cases), Zambia (2'748 cases), and Malawi (1'142 cases). Swaziland is also affected by the outbreak. Socio-economic and political factors, growing urbanization, population movement and lack of basic infrastructure are aggravating factors. As the situation is not expected to improve in the immediate future, partners increasingly feel the need for a proper analysis of the risk factors, definition of possible scenarios and identification of regional priorities for preparedness and response interventions in the short medium and long term. Humanitarian Situation-Cholera Update

Efforts must be intensified to control Zimbabwe cholera outbreak

Zimbabwe's cholera outbreak, one of the world's largest ever recorded, is far from being brought under control. An enhanced response is needed to urgently reverse an epidemic that has infected more than 60 000 people and killed more than 3100 since August 2008.
Read the press release

23 January, 2009

Draft Chemical Background document on Nitrobenzene to the Guidelines for Drinking-water quality available for comments

In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, "Nitrobenzene in Drinking-water", a chemical background document has been prepared. Comments on the background document should be sent to [email protected] Closing date for receiving comments 15 April 2009.

Nitrobenzene

Water, sanitation and hygiene standards in schools in low-cost settings.

Water-, sanitation- and hygiene-related diseases are a huge burden in developing countries. About 88% of diarrhoeal diseases are caused by unsafe water supply, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WHO 2004c)

Schools with poor water, sanitation and hygiene conditions are the most affected.

The guidelines deals specifically with water supply, hygiene promotion, sanitation, control of vector-borne disease, cleaning and waste disposal and food storage preparation.
http://www.who.int/entity/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/settings/wash_standards_schools_per_review2.doc

Current crisis in Gaza
In support of WHO's response to the current crisis in Gaza, and in line with the declaration by the WHO Director-General, Margaret Chan, which says "drinking water in Gaza is scarce, sewage lines have been broken, and garbage is piling up, making ideal conditions for the outbreak of disease", WSH has contributed to the development of a Communicable Disease Risk Assessment document led by the Disease Control in Humanitarian Emergencies (DCE) at WHO.

Event

Household Water Treatment & Safe Storage Network – Technical Meeting

This year, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) is dedicating its International Research Colloquium on Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS). It is to take place in Dublin from the 17th -20th August 2009. As members of the International Network to Promote HWTS, the RCSI are committed to scaling up HWTS innovations, propagation, and most essentially, uptake in the developing world. As the base of the Secretariat for the International Network, the WHO will be co-sponsoring this event.

household Water Treatment and safe Storage Network-Technical Meeting

18 December, 2008

Draft Chemical Background document on Boron to the Guidelines for Drinking-water quality available for comments
In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Boron in Drinking-water, a chemical background document has been revised. Comments on the background document should be sent to [email protected] Closing date for receiving comments 10 February 2009. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/boron/en/

THE LEXICONN
To promote a common understanding of technical terms related to health and environment issues WHO has created an on-line searchable database with multi-language terminology equivalence, called The Health and Environment Lexicon The Lexicon. This is an on-going project which has three phases, listed in order of priority: 1) translations; 2) definitions; and 3) explanations and examples. Every week, more is added to the Lexicon.

  • Currently there are 3,395 terms in English, with 2,860 French, 2,260 Spanish, and over 1,420 Russian, Arabic and Chinese equivalents.
  • Over 800 terms have a definition.

If you would like to be considered as a potential reviewer or if you have any comments, suggestions or additions, please email to [email protected].

Zimbabwe

18 December 2008 - As of 17 December 2008, a total of 20 581 cases, including 1 111 deaths have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Zimbabwe in nine provinces out of 10. Matabeleland North is currently the only province where no cases have been reported but this might be due to inadequate surveillance. Harare (centered on Budiriro suburb in the south west) accounts for the majority of cases (44%), followed by Beitbridge (17%) in Matabeleland South and Mudzi (7.5%) in Mashonaland East. A total of 53 districts are affected by the disease. Even though cholera is endemic in Zimbabwe since the early nineties, it is the largest ever recorded cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe.

The outbreak has taken on a subregional dimension with cases being reported from neighboring countries. In South Africa as of 15 December, 1009 cumulative cases and 11 deaths (CFR of 1.1%) had been recorded, with the bulk of the cases (937) in the Limpopo area. In Zambia, as of 10 December, 16 cases and 1 death (6.25%) had been recorded in 4 districts of the Southern Province (Siavonga, Livingstone, Mazabuka and Kalomo). Cases have also been reported in Botswana (Palm Tree) and Mozambique (Guro district).

The current situation is closely linked to the lack of safe drinking water, poor sanitation, declining health infrastructure, and reduced health care staff. Other current risk factors include the commencement of the rainy season and the movement of people within the country, and possibly across borders, during the Christmas season.

The Department of Public Health and Environment at WHO is playing a key role in the cholera response effort. Together with the Ministry of Health and other health partners, WHO has established a cholera control and command center in order to strengthen the coordination of the national response, strengthen the case reporting and response mechanism and ensure early detection and improve access to health care and proper case management. WHO has also deployed experts in public health, water and sanitation, logistics and social mobilization. WHO is closely supporting the Ministry of Health request for international assistance in the areas of funds, materials and supplies, and products to ensure safe drinking water.

Democratic Republic of Congo

In DRC, during week 48 a total of 357 new suspected cholera cases including 13 deaths (CFR 3.6%) were reported. The number of cases reported has been declining since week 46. The total for the whole province since January 2008 is 10,346 cases and 202 deaths (CFR 2 %) in 8 health zones.

Cholera

Cholera Country Profile

Vacancy notice for a Technical Officer at WHO
WHO is currently announcing a vacancy for a Technical Officer at a P4 level in the Water,
Sanitation and Health Unit of the Department of Public Health and Environment.
Please find the vacancy notice and details for application in the link below:
WHO Vacancy Deadline for applications: 13 January 2009

Microbiological evaluation of fecal bacterial composition from surface water through aquifer sand material
A. Mark Ibekwe and Stephen R. Lyon.......... 411-421
doi:10.2166/wh.2008.058
Abstract

Water-related diseases outbreaks reported in Italy
Monica Francesca Blasi, Mario Carere, Enzo Funari, Maria Grazia Pompa and Elvira Rizzuto.......... 423-432 32
doi:10.2166/wh.2008.063
Abstract

8 December, 2008

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Second addendum to the Third Edition, Volume 1, Recommendations.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has today released the web-based version of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Second Addendum to the Third Edition, Volume 1, Recommendations. This addendum adds to and supersedes information in the third edition of the Guidelines.

Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Second Addendum to the 3rd Edition Volume 1 - Recommendations

In response to feedback received, the second addendum includes more guidance on household water management, rainwater harvesting, vended water, temporary water supplies, and pesticides used for vector control in drinking-water sources. It also includes a series of new microbial and chemical fact sheets. Moreover, "expanded" fact sheets are included for key chemical risks such as arsenic, fluoride and nitrate/nitrite.

Complete Spanish version - Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, third edition, incorporating first addendum, Volume 1 - Recommendations is now available on line at: Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - Spanish

HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: Preliminary evaluation of experience

María J. Gunnarsdóttir and Loftur R. Gissurarson.......... 377-382

Abstractt doi:10.2166/wh.2008.055

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in Norwegian groundwater wells in bedrock

Sylvi Gaut, Atle Dagestad, Lucy Robertson, Bjørn Gjerde, Bjørge Brattli and Sylvi Gaut.......... 383-388

Abstractt doi:10.2166/wh.2008.046

Use of the ISO 9308-1 procedure for the detection of E. coli in water utilizing two incubation temperatures and two confirmation procedures and comparison with defined substrate technology

C. R. Fricker, S. Bullock, K. Murrin and S. I. Niemela.......... 389-397

Abstractt doi:10.2166/wh.2008.049

Nitrogen-nitrate exposure from drinking water and colorectal cancer risk for rural women in Wisconsin, USA

Jane A. McElroy, Amy Trentham-Dietz, John M. Hampton, Andrew J. Bersch, Ronald E. Gangnon, Marty S. Kanarek and Polly A. Newcomb.......... 399-409

Abstractt doi:10.2166/wh.2008.048

4 November, 2008

Chemical Background documents to the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

In developing the second addendum to the third edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality and following a public review process, the following chemical background documents are available for download in final, published format:

A revised version of the document, Petroleum Products in Drinking-water, prepared for the 1st addendum to the third edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality is available at: Petroleum products in Drinking-water

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana Stephen T. McGarvey, Justin Buszin, Holly Reed, Zarah Rahman, Catherine Andrzejewski, Michael J. White, David C. Smith and Kofi Awusabo-Asare.......... 339-349

Abstract doi:10.2166/wh.2008.057

An epidemiological study of enteric viruses in sewage with molecular characterization by RT-PCR and sequence analysis
A. Arraj, J. Bohatier, A. Arraj, C. Aumeran, J. L. Bailly, H. Laveran and O. Traoré.......... 351-358 Abstract doi:10.2166/wh.2008.053

An approach for developing quantitative risk-based microbial standards for fresh produce
Kristina D. Mena and Suresh D. Pillai.......... 359-364 Abstract doi:10.2166/wh.2008.047

Faecal contamination of a municipal drinking water distribution system in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections

Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T. Miettinen, Ulla-Maija Nakari, Anja Siitonen, Markku Kuusi, Johanna Takkinen, Kalle Nieminen, Arja Holopainen and Marja-Liisa Hänninen.......... 365-376 Abstractt doi:10.2166/wh.2008.050

24 September, 2008

The puzzle — informing key decision and policy makers in the sanitation and drinking-water sectors

If the full picture of the sanitation and drinking-water sectors is a puzzle, then service levels reflected in the coverage figures are pieces of the puzzle. Other pieces are information on institutional capacity, the policy framework, human resources capacity, and the flows of sector funds together with the capacity to absorb them. An important piece is the capacity to translate all this information into better sanitation and drinking-water services, resulting in healthier and more dignified living conditions, and a more productive working environment.

Visit The Global Annual Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS)

Event Announcement

WHO Contribution to the Symposium "Coupling Sustainable Sanitation and Groundwater Protection" 14.-17 October 2008 Hannover, Germany

The international symposium will serve as a forum for exchange between practitioners of development cooperation, technical and scientific specialists and representatives of political institutions who are committed to substantive support for improved sanitation. It will therefore discuss technical and scientific approaches towards improved sanitation and groundwater protection within a political framework. A detailed programme is now available at the symposium website. Information: Coupling sustainable sanitation and groundwater protection
Contact: [email protected]

Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety, Dakar, Senegal.

The sixth session of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety took place in Dakar, Senegal from 15 to 19 September, with included in its a agenda an item on ecologically based integrated pest management and integrated vector management. With a focus on reducing reliance on chemical methods of vector control, non-chemical methods, including water management in agro-ecosystems, were highlighted in the presentations of WSH staff and a number of consultants. For a summary account, see: Global Partnerships in Chemicals Safety

The report of the sixth session of IFCS, including recommendations on IPM and IVM, will be published shortly on

Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety

AMRO Regional Symposium: "Sanitation: An Essential Determinant of Health"

The Area of Sustainable Development and Environmental Health ((SDE) of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) is holding a Regional Symposium on "Sanitation: An Essential Determinant of Health" from 10 to 11 October 2008 in Santiago, Chile.

Regional Symposium: Sanitation essential determinants oh health

The SDE Symposium is held in line with the International Year of Sanitation and, thus, addressing the challenges, which Latin American countries face in order to achieve the MDGs, in particular MDG 7, which is "to ensure environmental sustainability". The access to water and sanitation is a fundamental health determinant, which can improve life conditions of populations. PAHO considers the role of companies of water and sanitation and its relation to communities as a great challenge for the development of cities.

The WSH website on the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture have been updated.

Go to: Safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater

Improved methods for modelling drinking water treatment in quantitative microbial risk assessment; a case study of Campylobacter reduction by filtration and ozonation

P. W. M. H. Smeets, G. J. Medema, Y. J. Dullemont, P. H. A. J. M. Van Gelder and J. C. Van Dijk.......... 301-314

doi:10.2166/wh.2008.066 Improved methods for modeling drinking water treatment

Inactivation of Nitrosomonas europaea and pathogenic Escherichia coli by chlorine and monochloramine

Christian Chauret, Curtis Smith and Hélène Baribeau.......... 315-322

doi:10.2166/wh.2008.052 Inactivation of Nitrosomonas europaea and pathogenic Escherichia coli

Factors determining vulnerability to diarrhoea during and after severe floods in Bangladesh

Masahiro Hashizume, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Abu S. G. Faruque, David A. Sack, Taiichi Hayashi, Paul R. Hunter and Ben Armstrong.......... 323-332

doi:10.2166/wh.2008.062 Factors determining vulnerability to diarrhoea

Outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum among children after a school excursion to an adventure farm, South West England

M. R. Hoek, I. Oliver, M. Barlow, L. Heard, S. Paynter and R. Chalmers.......... 333-338

doi:10.2166/wh.2008.060 Outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum among children

27 August, 2008

Proposals for various work packages related to water, sanitation and hygiene interventions

Request for proposals

WHO has posted a request for proposals in order to assess five different types of leap-frog technologies, including the benefits and limitations for each, and identify lessons learned with respect to the use of leap-frog technologies in the management of small community water supplies.

Individuals that are qualified professionals with expertise in the drinking water supply management and an understanding of the challenges associated with small community water supplies are invited to contribute to this work.

Deadline for proposals: 22 September 2008, 11:00 hours, Central European Time

Contact for queries and submission of proposal: [email protected]

Award of a Contract

WHO had previously posted a request for proposals in order to develop guidance on communication with respect to safe drinking water and household hygiene The associated contract has been awarded to Cranfield University.

Contact for queries: : [email protected]

First Inter-Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in Africac

The Inter-ministerial Conference for Health and Environment in Africa takes place from 26-29 August 2008 in Libreville, Gabon. Organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), in partnership with the Government of Gabon .

The conference explores ways to address key priorities and linkages in line with its theme “Health security through healthy environments”. It review existing mechanisms and opportunities to address environmental challenges facing Africa. An agreement on specific actions required for changes in institutional arrangements and investment frameworks will be discussed more information in the following website:

First Inter-Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in Africa

Environmental Health Consultant, specialized in Food Safety; WHO office in Timor Letse, Grade: P3, Short-term appointment; Duration of contract: One month; Duty Station: Dilli, Timor Leste. Aim: Support the development of national standards for monitoring and evaluation of food safety and identify capacity building needs in this area. Contact: [email protected]

Mycobacterium avium in a shower linked to pulmonary disease

Joseph O. . Falkinham III, Michael D. Iseman, Petra de Haas and Dick van Soolingen.......... 209–213

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.032

The microbiological quality of potable water on board ships docking in the UK and the Channel Islands: an association of Port Health Authorities and Health Protection Agency Study

P. Grenfell, C. L. Little, C. Lane, G. Nichols, S. Surman-Lee, M. Greenwood, J. Averns and S. Westacott.......... 215–224

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.045

Improved real-time PCR assays for the detection of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters with different instrument and reagent systems

S. Siefring, M. Varma, E. Atikovic, L. Wymer and R. A. Haugland.......... 225–237

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.022

Current status and future trends in Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology in Malaysia

Y. A. L. Lim, R. A. Ahmad and H. V. Smith.......... 239–254

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.023

Survival of enteric microorganisms on grass surfaces irrigated with treated effluent

J. P. S. Sidhu, J. Hanna and S. G. Toze.......... 255–262

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.029

14 August, 2008

Legionnaires' disease: evaluation of a quantitative microbial risk assessment model

Thomas W. Armstrong and Charles N. Haas.......... 149–166

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.026

The effect of wetland vegetation on the survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, bacteriophage MS-2 and polio virus

Mohammad R. Karim, Edward P. Glenn and Charles P. Gerba.......... 167–175

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.024

Experience in Wales (UK) of the optimisation of ortho-phosphate dosing for controlling lead in drinking water

C. R. Hayes, S. Incledion and M. Balch.......... 177–185

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.044

Cercarial dermatitis in the Netherlands caused by Trichobilharzia spp.

F. M. Schets, W. J. Lodder, Y. T. H. P. van Duynhoven and A. M. de Roda Husman.......... 187–195

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.028

Identification of the sources of Escherichia coli in a watershed using carbon-utilization patterns and composite data sets

Samir H. Moussa and Rene D. Massengale.......... 197–207

Abstract | doi:10.2166/wh.2008.021

The Journal of Water and Health has received its first Impact Factor: 1.164. A very positive result which its editors Charles P. Gerba (University of Arizona, USA), Paul R. Hunter (University of East Anglia, UK), Paul Jagals (Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa), and In S. Kim (Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea), are proud of. The journal represents a joint commitment by IWA with WHO to promote high quality research and practice across the full range of challenges to harnessing water for health in developing and developed countries alike. The latest edition of the journal is free to view at http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/005/1/default.htm

11 August, 2008

WHO is developing a series of Fact Sheets on Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Waste in Emergencies

Fact sheets on environmental sanitation in emergencies

The aim of these Fact Sheets is to provide user friendly, practical guidance to assist rapid response to crisis situations. They address four different categories of emergency. The first addresses emergency situations specifically. The second broadly covers a wide range of environmental sanitation issues of use beyond the immediate emergency situation. The third provides information on various vector-borne diseases that need to be monitored in the context of an emergency situation. The fourth shows the impact of water and sanitation on a number of specific diseases.

WSH is seeking assistance from those with suitable experience to review the draft Fact Sheets. A "Comments Sheet" is attached which details the type of review we are seeking. We should be grateful to receive responses from interested individuals/institutions by 15 September 2008. Your assistance is much appreciated.

7 August, 2008

WHO is developing a series of Fact Sheets on Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Waste in Emergencies

The aim of these Fact Sheets is to provide user friendly, practical guidance to assist rapid response to crisis situations. They address four different categories of emergency. The first addresses emergency situations specifically. The second broadly covers a wide range of environmental sanitation issues of use beyond the immediate emergency situation. The third provides information on various vector-borne diseases that need to be monitored in the context of an emergency situation. The fourth shows the impact of water and sanitation on a number of specific diseases.

WSH is seeking assistance from those with suitable experience to review the draft Fact Sheets. A "Comments Sheet" is attached which details the type of review we are seeking. We should be grateful to receive responses from interested individuals/institutions by 15 September 2008. Your assistance is much appreciated.

WHO Guide to Hygiene and Sanitation in Aviation

The draft Guide to Hygiene and Sanitation in Aviation, Third Edition (modules addressing water, cleaning and disinfection) is available for public review.

Guide to hygiene and sanitation in aviation

Closing date for submitting comments - 15 October 2008.

A meeting of Experts for the development of the Guide to Hygiene and Sanitation in Aviation was held in Toronto, Canada from 24-26 March 2008.

The summary and the outcome of that meeting is contained in the meeting report mentioned below. Meeting of Experts for the development of the Guide

Small Community Water Supplies

Community water supplies in both developing and developed countries are more frequently associated with outbreaks of waterborne disease than urban supplies. The International Small Community Water Supply Network was formed to promote the achievement of substantive and sustainable improvements to the safety of small community water supplies, particularly in rural areas, as a contribution to the Millennium Development targets related to water and sanitation. Membership in the Network is open to all interested stakeholders that agree with the Network's purpose and objective and who are willing to commit themselves to working towards achieving the objectives of the Network.

Contact for queries: [email protected]

Fourth meeting of the International Small Community Water Supply Network

The report for the fourth meeting of the International Small Community Water Supply Network has just been posted onto the Network's website. The Network was formed to promote the achievement of substantive and sustainable improvements to the safety of small community water supplies, particularly in rural areas, as a contribution to the Millennium Development targets related to water and sanitation. Membership in the Network is open to all interested stakeholders that agree with the Network's purpose and objective and who are willing to commit themselves to working towards achieving the objectives of the Network.

Contact for queries: [email protected]

Request for Literature on the Performance of Small Community Water Supplies

I am in search of any papers, reports, or other literature evaluating the performance of small community water supplies over time for a review paper on the socio-economics of managing these supplies for the International Small Community Water Supply Network. I am particularly looking for literature that focuses on specific projects or interventions and which include a description of the project inputs and results (whether positive or negative) over time.

If you have any recommendations, please email Emily Kumpel at [email protected]

17 July, 2008

New publication:

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme 2008. Report

Progress in Drinking-water and Sanitation. Special Focus on Sanitation JMP 2008

The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) JMP Report. Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation

has issued its 2008 update report, "Progress on Drinking-water and Sanitation: special focus on sanitation". As 2008 is the International Year of Sanitation (IYS) JMP has made sanitation a major focus in this report.

In addition to analysing global progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for sanitation and drinking-water, it introduces a new way of assessing global, regional and country progress using the "ladder" concept for both sanitation and drinking-water. For sanitation, trends in using improved, shared, and unimproved sanitation facilities are shown, in addition to the trend in open defecation. The drinking-water ladder shows the percentage of global population using piped connections into a dwelling, plot or yard; other improved water sources; and unimproved sources. The intention is to continue refining the "ladders" in future reports.

Core Questions on Drinking-water and Sanitation for Household Surveys

Due to wide variations among countries in survey tools and methods, comparison between different surveys is difficult. To help overcome this problem, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) has developed a set of harmonized survey questions:

Core questions on drinking-water and sanitation household surveys to help resolve these comparability problems. Including this question set in national surveys and censuses will help countries gain more systematic information on the drinking-water and sanitation practices and needs of the population.

The core question set presented in this document is already in use by the Demographic and Health Surveys, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and the World Health Survey. JMP wishes to encourage widespread use of these harmonized questions in countries both to facilitate evidence-based decision-making at national level and to help enhance the accuracy of its own information.

The Lexicon

To promote a common understanding of technical terms related to health and environment issues WHO has created an on-line searchable database with multi-language terminology equivalence, called The Health and Environment Lexicon (The Lexicon ). Most terms currently have multi-language equivalents in French, Portuguese, and Spanish with Arabic, Chinese, German, and Russian being added progressively. This is an on-going project which has three phases, listed in order of priority: 1) translations; 2) definitions; and 3) explanations and examples. The Lexicon is being extended, completed and improved with all three phases being addressed simultaneously for some terms. Currently over 350 terms have definitions.

If you would like to be considered as a potential reviewer or if you have any comments, suggestions or additions, please email to [email protected]

Award of a Contract

Earlier this year, WHO posted a request for proposals in order to undertake the identification and mapping of information and data requirements for implementing and assessing drinking water programs. The associated contract has been awarded to Flinders University.

Contact for queries: [email protected]

A WHO report in the Lancet: How to prevent a tenth of the global disease burden

The WHO report, Safer Water, better Health, recently published showed that a staggering 9.1% of the total global burden of disease could be prevented by improving access to clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene. Hopefully the international community will now wake up to this staggering fact and act accordingly.

HIA Seminar in Stockholm

A morning seminar on Health Impact Assessment of Water Resources Development is organized on Thursday 21 August during the 2008 Stockholm World Water Week. The seminar will introduce current concepts, principles and practice of HIA and how this planning tool can be used to strengthen water resources management. Speakers include Akiça Bari of IWMI, Peter Furu of DBL Denmark, Lorna Fewtrell, UK (who just published an IWA book on the subject) and Juerg Utzinger of the Swiss Tropical Institute.

International Year of Sanitation Flagship publication from UN Water:

The PDF version of the document in French, Spanish and English can be seen

on the International Year of Sanitation website http://esa.un.org/iys/

5 June, 2008

Swimming Pool & Spa. International Conference 2009

The Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group is hosting the third in this series of biennial conferences. Budapest in 2005; Munich in 2007; the Royal College of Physicians, 17-20 March 2009. Five sessions – Infections associated with pools, Health impact of disinfection by-products, Water treatment, Technical management of pool hygiene and Risk Management – will include a review of the WHO recreational water guidelines. Details, including a call for papers.

Swimming Pool & Spa. International Conference 2009

Workshop on Adaptation to climate change in the water sector

The workshop will be organised under the auspices of the Water Convention and of the Protocol on Water and Health. It will be hosted by the Netherlands and jointly organized with Germany and Italy.

The workshop is targeted at government officials from environment, health and water authorities; water supply and wastewater managers; scientists working on climate adaptation; representatives from private sector; non-governmental and international organizations.

http://www.unece.org/env/water/meetings/water_climate_workshop.htm

Making sustainable water and sanitation in the Peruvian Andes: an intervention model

Marco Campos.......... s27-s31

Making sustainable water and sanitation in the Peruvian Andes

Drinking-water safety - challenges for community-managed systems

S. Rizak and Steve E. Hrudey.......... s33-s41

Drinking-water safety - challenges for community

Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States

Veronica Blette.......... s43-s51

Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the US

8 May, 2008

Symposium to the International Year of Sanitation (IYS), 14-17 October 2008
Coupling Sustainable Sanitation and Groundwater Protection
WHO is co-sponsoring this International Symposium, organized by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), 14-17 October 2008 in Hannover. The objective is to provide a forum for interaction between practitioners and decision makers, with the goal of finding practical solutions to sustainable sanitation. Reducing health risks associated with inadequate sanitation is a key cross-cutting theme.

More information and registration:
Symposium to the International Year of Sanitation 14-17 October 2008

The MDG Water and Sanitation Target: Refining the monitoring tools
This is an invitation to a UN-Water side event at CSD-16, taking place on Tuesday, 13 May 2008, 13:15-14:45, in Conference Room 4, UN Office New York, USA.


Side event topics:

  • The UN-Water initiatives to monitor the MDG water and sanitation target;
  • The latest WHO/UNICEF JMP 2008 report;
  • The Global Annual Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water.

For further information:
A Guide to UN-Water
UN-Water Report
or please contact Mr Federico Properzi,="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected].

Water Quality Interventions to Prevent Diarrhoea: Cost and Cost-Effectiveness
While a growing body of research has confirmed the effectiveness of many household water treatment technologies in improving microbial water quality and reducing disease, questions remain about which technologies are most appropriate to deploy, and how these compare in costs with source-based interventions (e.g. tap stands, bore holes and dug wells). This new report, based on a rigorous systematic review, and a comprehensive assessment of costs, provides guidance to policy makers, programme implementers, and NGOs on costs and cost-effectiveness of water quality interventions.

Water Quality Interventions to Prevent Diarrhoea: Cost and Cost-Effectiveness

Water safety plans: planning for adverse events and communicating with consumers
Paul M. Byleveld, Daniel Deere and Annette Davison.......... s1-s9
Water safety plans: Planning for adverse events and communicating with consumers

Unintentional drinking-water contamination events of unknown origin: surrogate for terrorism preparedness
Gary Winston and Alex Leventhal.......... s11-s19
Unintentional drinking-water contamination events of unknown origin

Water contamination events in UK drinking-water supply systems
John Gray.......... s21-s26
Water contamination events in UK drinking-water supply systems

10 April, 2008

The Lexicon:

To promote a common understanding of technical terms related to health and environment issues WHO has created an on-line searchable database with multi-language terminology equivalence, called the Health and Environment Lexicon. Most terms currently have multi-language equivalents in French (2,300), Spanish (2,100), and Portuguese (1,700) with Arabic (1,300), Chinese (1,300), German (600), and Russian (800) being added progressively. This is an on-going project which has three phases, listed in order of priority: 1) translations; 2) definitions; and 3) explanations and examples. The Lexicon is being extended, completed and improved with all three phases being addressed simultaneously for some terms. If you would have any comments, suggestions or additions, please email to [email protected].

Forthcoming Events.

Water safety plans: Global Experiences and Future Trends - Advance programme now available

Lisbon, Portugal 12-14 May 2008

Five years after the first international WSP meeting in Berlin, IWA, WHO and Portugal are pleased to provide the international water community with an opportunity to come together and exchange knowledge and experiences of preventive risk based approaches to managing drinking water supplies.

Water Safety Plans: Global Experience and Future Trends

Singapore International Water Week 23-27 June 2008

As part of WHO/Singapore collaboration on water safety issues, Singapore will host the Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality annual meeting of experts. Back-to-back with this it will convene an International Water Week, a global platform aiming to address challenges, showcase technologies, discover opportunities and celebrate achievements in the water world.

More information Singapore International Water Week

20 March, 2008

Special issue on World Water event in Geneva

Speaking at an event to mark World Water Day at the Palais des Nations, Geneva this morning, Director-General Dr Margaret Chan said "Sanitation is a fundamental stepping stone for better health. Let me go straight to the point. An estimated 40% of the world’s population lives without one of the basic amenities of modern life: a toilet. This means that 2.6 billion people are forced to relieve themselves in open spaces – in fields, forests, bushes, water bodies, or a patch of mud. This is a degrading way of life, and this is a form of environmental degradation with direct and dramatic consequences for health".

The event was also attended by UN Agency representatives and His Royal Highness Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. The Prince has been active in the field of water and sanitation, in the Netherlands and elsewhere, since 1998, and is currently the chair of the United Nations Secretary General's Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation. The Board was set up in 2004 by Kofi Annan to advise on practical measures that could be taken to achieve the Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation. He said, "Good health is the basis of human life. It is the basis we need to live our lives in dignity. And we need a healthy body and environment to be able to develop.......If we invest in clean water and sanitation we invest in people and their social and economic development. Sanitation is about health, dignity and development."

The joint WHO-UNICEF Press Release to mark World Water Day 2008 and full text of speeches are available in

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/iys/wwd_2008/en/index.html

19 March, 2008

Special issue on World Water event in Geneva.

Sanitation Fact Files

Lack of sanitation is a serious health risk and an affront to human dignity. It affects billions of people around the world, particularly the poor and disadvantaged.

In the wake of disasters and in every day life, public health interventions that secure adequate sanitation in communities prevent the spread of disease and save lives. They raise the quality of life for many, particularly women and children who are often in charge of domestic tasks, and can face personal risks when they relieve themselves in the open.

Sanitation is a basic need and a way to ensure better health. The United Nations declared 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation to make it a priority for governments, organizations, civil society and private partners worldwide. Since its inception, WHO has defined sanitation as vital to global health. Today, the Organization continues to help Member States improve sanitation status, respond to sanitation needs during emergencies and increase policies and actions that expand access to this basic service.

Read more about sanitation and health at http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/sanitation/en/index.html

18 March, 2008

Special issue on World Water event in Geneva.

World Water Day 2008 provides an opportunity to draw attention to the International Year of Sanitation 2008; a year in which the United Nations General Assembly in December 2006 has called for a focus on addressing sanitation and hygiene problems. About 2.6 billion people around the world live without access to even a toilet at home.

The International Year of Sanitation highlights 5 key messages:

Details of the World Water Day programme in Geneva can be found on this link:

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/iys/wwd2008_programme.pdf

For more information on World Water Day 2008, please visit: http://www.unwater.org/worldwaterday/flashindex.html

17 March, 2008

Special issue for Water World Day event in Geneva.

The World Health Organization, together with United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), is organising the central celebration of World Water Day 2008 with the theme “Sanitation Matters” on 20 March 2008 at Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. World Water Day, is a unique opportunity to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health and development that affects the poor, women, children and the disadvantaged.

Main activities during the day include a press conference, key messages for World Water Day and a media- attractive event of demonstrating lack of access to a toilet facility. Key messages will be delivered by Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO, His Royal Highness Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, Mr. Philip O'Brien, Regional Director of UNICEF in Geneva, Mr. Jon Lane, Executive Director of WSSCC and Mr. Remo Gautschi, Deputy Director -General of Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.

6 March, 2008

New Publication:

Essential Environmental Health Standards in Health Care

This document provides guidance on essential environmental health standards required for health care in medium and low-resource countries and support the development and implementation of national policies and also recommends measures for minimizing the risk of health care-associated diseases for patients, staff and carers.

These guidelines have been written for use by health managers and planners, architects, urban planners, water and sanitation staff, clinical and nursing staff, carers and other health-care providers, and health promoters.

Essential Environmental Health Standards in Health Care

In 2008 WHO will publish “Valuing water – valuing well-being: a guide to understanding the costs and benefits of water interventions.” The final manuscript is now available for review by professionals in the water sector, by public health professionals and by health economists.

At this stage WHO is inviting reviewers to provide comments, observations and suggestions either on the entire manuscript or on the individual chapters.

For more information, and for access to the manuscript, please go to the web site address:

WHO Guide to Understanding Costs and Benefits of Water Interventions

World Water Day Celebration, 20 March 2008

World Water Day 2008 will be celebrated by the UN on Thursday, 20 March. In 2008 the day will highlight issues on sanitation in accordance with the International Year of Sanitation 2008. People around the world are encouraged to celebrate the day to draw attention to the world’s sanitation challenge.

World Water Day 08

Combining targeted sampling and fluorometry to identify human fecal contamination in a freshwater creek

Peter G. Hartel, Karen Rodgers, Gwyneth L. Moody, Sarah N. J. Hemmings, Jared A. Fisher and Jennifer L. McDonald.......... 105-116

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.004

Combining targeted sampling and fluorometry to identify human fecal caontamination

Aeromonas detection and their toxins from drinking water from reservoirs and drinking fountains

M. T. P. Razzolini, Marisa Di Bari, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato and Petra Sanchez Sanchez.......... 117-123

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.018

Aeromonas detection and their toxins from drinking water from reservoirs and drinking fountains

Drinking water microbiological survey of the Northwestern State of Sinaloa, Mexico Cristobal Chaidez, Marcela Soto, Celida Martinez and Bruce Keswick.......... 125-129

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.011

Drinking water microbiological survey of the Northwestern State of Sinaloa

An evaluation of the mobility of pathogen indicators, Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS-2, in a highly weathered tropical soil under unsaturated conditions Tiow-Ping Wong, Chittaranjan Ray, Muruleedhara Byappanahalli and Bunnie Yoneyama.......... 131-140

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.012

An evaluation of the mobility of pathogen indicators

A study of the quality and hygienic conditions of spring water in Mongolia

Altanzagas Badrakh, Tsolmon Chultemdorji, Tsevegdorj Tserendorj, Delgermaa Vanya, Chimeddulam Dalaijamts, Robert Hagan, Salik Govind and Enhtsetseg Shinee.......... 141-148

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.017

A study of the quality and hygienic conditions of spring water

14 February, 2008

Water, Health and Economics

Assessing the costs and impacts of different technical and policy actions provides a critical input to decision taking and policy making.

WHO has developed and applied methods to apply such analysis to water sanitation and hygiene interventions and has worked with global and regional partners to undertake and publish studies. A major area of work is to adapt these methods so that they are appropriate for use at national and project scales.

  • Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation

Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to “halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation”. Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10.

Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for WSS

Other related documents: Water, Health and Economics

Assessment of a low-cost, point-of-use, ultraviolet water disinfection technology

Sarah A. Brownell, Alicia R. Chakrabarti, Forest M. Kaser, Fermin Reygadas, Micah J. Lang, Lloyd G. Connelly, Rachel L. Peletz, Daniel M. Kammen and Kara L. Nelson.......... 53-65

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.015

Assessment of a low-cost, point of use, ultraviolet water disinfection teechnology

Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters in western Kenya

D. S. Lantagne, R. Quick, B. C. Blount and F. Cardinali.......... 67-82

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.013

Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies

Microbial groundwater quality and its health implications for a border-strip irrigated dairy farm catchment, South Island, New Zealand

Murray Close, Rod Dann, Andrew Ball, Marion Savill, Ruth Pirie and Zella Smith.......... 83-98

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.020

Microbial groundwater quality and its health implications

Prevalence of Acanthamoeba and other naked amoebae in South Florida domestic water

M. E. Shoff, A. Rogerson, K. Kessler, S. Schatz and D. V. Seal.......... 99-104

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.014

Prevalence of Acanthamoeba and other naked amoebae

23 January, 2008

World Water Week 2008

During World Water Week 2008 (Stockholm, 17-23 August) one of the scheduled workshops is Preventive Action for Human Health

With water and sanitation at the core of the public health concept of prevention, four areas will be critically reviewed and discussed: evidence for policy, policy/legislative frameworks for normative action, water and sanitation within health systems and capacity for intersectoral action.

The deadline for submission of abstracts is 1 February 2008! More information can be found on.

22 January, 2008

Request for proposals - Integrating household water treatment and indoor air pollution interventions

WHO is planning to fund two pilot projects in the range of US$ 30,000-60,000 to encourage thinking about, and implementation of, innovative approaches for integrating household water treatment and indoor air quality interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Please note that we are placing the emphasis on testing a hypothesis (i.e. added value of joining up interventions) rather than on achieving health impacts on a large scale.

Deadline for receipt of proposals is 15 February 2008

WHO has launched its new website on Environmental Health in Emergencies

The purpose of the website is to provide information and resources on health problems arising from environmental emergencies.

Topics include: Natural events, technological incidents, complex emergencies, preparedness, prevention, response and recovery.

A review of water and sanitation provision in refugee camps in association with selected health and nutrition indicators -

the need for integrated service provision

A. A. Cronin, D. Shrestha, N. Cornier, F. Abdalla, N. Ezard and C. Aramburu.......... 1-13

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.019

A review of water and sanitation provision in refugee camps

Biodegradation of six haloacetic acids in drinking water

Walt Bayless and Robert C. Andrews.......... 15-22

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.002

Biodegradation of six haloacetic acids in drinking water

Relative importance of the various environmental sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts in three watersheds

Dawn A. T. Phillip, Samuel C. Rawlins, Shrimatee Baboolal, Radha Gosein, Claudette Goddard, George Legall and Armanath Chinchamee.......... 23-34

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.016

Relative importance of the various environmental sources of Cryptosporidium

Speeding up solar disinfection (SODIS): effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, pH, and copper plus ascorbate on the

photoinactivation of E. coli

Michael B. Fisher, Christina R. Keenan, Kara L. Nelson and Bettina M. Voelker.......... 35-51

doi:10.2166/wh.2007.005

Speeding up solar disinfection (SODIS)

8 January, 2008

WHO Bulletin Articles on Water and Sanitation

In this month's World Health Organization Bulletin (Volume 86, Number 1, January 2008, 1-80), Jamie Bartram examines why the health sector relies on water safety; Guy Hutton and Jamie Bartram calculate the cost of Millennium Development Goal (target 10) on water supply and sanitation; and, in this month’s interview, Mahmuder Rahman asks why Bangladesh’s drinking-water is still contaminated with arsenic.

Flowing away: water and health opportunities
- Jamie Bartram
Full article text [HTML] | Full article text [pdf 306kb]

Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation
- Guy Hutton & Jamie Bartram
Abstract [HTML] | Full article text [HTML] | Full article text [pdf 306kb]

An interview with Mahmuder Rahman Bangladesh’s arsenic agony
Full article text [HTML] | Full article text [pdf 164kb]

Chemical Safety of drinking-water: Assessing priorities for risk management

Water and Sanitation publication highlighted on the WHO corporate pages

This book (published 2007) provides guidance on the chemical safety of drinking-water. It aims to help users at national or local level to establish which chemicals in a specific context should be given priority while developing strategies for risk management and monitoring of chemicals in drinking-water. It will be useful for public health authorities, those responsible for setting standards and for surveillance of drinking-water quality, and water supply agencies responsible for water quality management.

WHO Activities on International Year of Sanitation (IYS) 2008 . Consult this page for updates throughout the year

WHO has collaborated with key partners on international development efforts to raise the profile of sanitation, such as the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD) (1980-1990) and the Johannesburg World Summit for Sustainable Development (2002). In Johannesburg, the MDG target on sanitation was set to halve the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation by 2015.

Identifying and mapping information and data requirements for implementing and assessing drinking water programs

In response to several requests, the Request for Proposals (RfP) for identifying and mapping information and data requirements for implementing and assessing drinking water programs has been re-opened. Those that have already submitted bids are welcome to submit revised versions of their bids. Individual(s) that are qualified professionals with expertise in the strategies and/or practices for the collection and dissemination of information in support of water management must contribute to the work

Water safety plans: Global Experiences and Future Trends

Lisbon, Portugal 12-14 May 2008

Five years after the first international WSP meeting in Berlin, IWA, WHO and IRAR (Portuguese water regulator) are pleased to provide the international water community with an opportunity to come together and exchange knowledge and experiences of preventive risk based approaches to managing drinking water supplies.

updated: 23 April, 2014

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